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Any system that conveys liquid or fluids for a wide range of application is plumbing. The systems used in plumbing in order to convey fluids include; pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures and tanks. Regulation of fluid flow and adapting to shape structure are realized by plumbing fixtures that are fittings that connect to straight pipe or tubing sections. Important aspects of plumbing and piping systems are fittings and require money, materials, tools and time in order to install them. During piping and plumbing there are some common fitting used and they include; elbow, nipple, union, reducer, double-tapped bushing, cross, cap, barb, plug, coupling among others. A cap is usually gas or liquid tight that covers the open end of a pipe. A plug fits inside a pipe segment or fitting.

Categorization of valves is based on applications such as throttling, isolation and non- return while the main purpose of valves is regulation of the flow of liquids or gases. Throttling valves are used in controlling of the amount of pressure of a fluid that is allowed to pass through while at the same time designed to withstand stress, wear and tear. Allowing of free flow of a fluid in one direction while at the same time preventing its reversal is done by non-return valves or check valves.

Drainage and pressurized systems are the most common areas in which non-return valves are used. When part of a piping system is temporarily disconnected isolation valves are used in order for repair and maintenance to take place. The postion of the isolation valves during the repair process is either open or fully closed. Crosses are either four way fittings or cross branch lines that have one inlet to three inlets. The common usage area for crosses is in fire sprinklers systems.

Fluid flow is combined using a tee which is the most common pipe fitting. A diverter tee is used in pressurized hydronic heating system so as to divert the portion of the flow from the main line into a side branch connected to a radiator or heat exchanger a variation of the tee. The hydraulic flow requirements of a system is met by a reducer which allows for change in pipe size. Connection of two pipes is done by a coupling and are of two types that is regular and slip.

Fuel gas piping, plumbing drainage venting, hydronics, rain water surface, sewage systems ad septic systems are the categories of plumbing system. Hydronics are heating and cooling systems that utilize water to transport thermal energy. The water used for human consumption is contaminated by microorganisms while at the same time destroy plumbing systems.

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